Education in India

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on UN practice, do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of the Commonwealth Secretariat or the
publishers concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area,
or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries. There is no intention to define the status of Jammu
and/or Kashmir, which has not yet been agreed on by the parties.

Joined Commonwealth: 1947

Population: 1,236,687,000 (2012)

GDP p.c. growth: 4.7% p.a. 1990–2012

UN HDI 2012: World ranking 136

Net primary enrolment: 98.9% (2011)

Gross tertiary enrolment: 24.8% (2012)

Adult literacy: 62.8% (2006)

Public spending on education was 3 per cent of GDP in 2011.

The Ministry of Human Resource Development consists of the Department of School Education, and Literacy and the Department of Higher Education. Its aim is to foster life long learning and development within the country, through the integration of the tools for which are needed to achieve this. It has control over institutional education, scholarships, languages and minority education. The Central Board of Secondary Education is the backbone of the institutional secondary education system of the country. It is in charge of conducting national examinations, and runs the schools accredited to the central education system.

There are nine years of compulsory education starting at age six. Some 66% of pupils complete primary school (2005). The school year starts in April.

There are some 44 ‘central’ universities, under the Department of Higher Education of the Ministry of Human Resource Development; 285 state universities, under the state governments, the three oldest of which – the Universities of Calcutta, Madras and Mumbai – dating back to 1857; more than 130 higher education institutions recognised and granted autonomous status by the Department of Higher Education; and 112 private universities (2012).

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